A critical discussion of the development of anxiety disorders based on biological and psychological explanations.

  • G. Tsirimokos
  • G. Thomas
  • P Louka
Keywords: Anxiety, life adversities, psychological factors, neural interrelations


Anxiety disorders are early emerging and relatively common conditions, associated with a variety of genetic, psychosocial, developmental and psychopathological complications. The discussion around demographic variables, hereditary familial aggregation, neural interrelations, hormonal activity, parental influences, social learning mechanisms and simple exposure to life adversities as well as the in-between interaction of these factors, provided but a glimpse of the complex and often unanticipated biological and psychological implications, which seemingly promote the onset of anxiety disorders. Although, psychological factors such as parenting environment or adverse life events have a huge impact to subsequent anxious symptomatology, biological attributes such as familial genetics and neurohormonal activity, are typically leading predictors regarding the development of anxiety disorders. However, it remains relatively unclear to which degree these biological indications are a predictor or a consequence of psychological factors. Further research focusing on these reciprocal effects might provide better clinical guidance regarding early intervention
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